Year 3  Part II  Courses
Students registered for this course will find all relevant resources and materials on Moodle. (NST Part II: Materials Science). Summaries of the topics covered are below.
In addition to attending lectures, students will be expected to attend a small number of practical sessions, complete a Literature review assignment, complete a group Techniques project (based on an introduction to modern methods for the structural and chemical characterisation of materials), participate in the Business & Industry course, and undertake a transferable skills options (languages, computing, eduction/outreach). Finally, there is a Vacation Report which must be submitted at the beginning of Part II or Part III.
Click on a course title for more information.

This course aims to give a basic introduction to some of the main techniques for physical and numerical modelling of materials properties, suitable for those with a physical sciences background but no prior programming experience. Using a combination of lecture material, case studies and precompiled applets, we will describe how to fit empirical models to numerical data and quantify their goodnessoffit, before exploring use of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods to predict behaviour of systems from their basic physical laws. Using two Case Studies, we will demonstrate the application of physical modelling techniques to simple (but realistic) materials problems: grain growth in metallic systems solidifying from melt, and the diffusion of ions in fluorite (a fast ion conductor). These will illustrate both how to apply the methods in practice and also what inputs/outputs can be expected from modelling at the microstructural and atomistic levels, respectively.
This lecture course will cover:
  Overall scope and objectives. The nine stages of modelling. Numerical hygiene. Units and dimensional analysis. SI units and prefixes. Reduced units. Visualising the results.
  Fitting models by nonlinear leastsquares analysis. Chisquared goodness of fit. Some pitfalls of regression analysis and overfitting.
  Statistical sampling methods and Buffon's needle. Introduction to Monte Carlo method. Thermal importance sampling and the Metropolis algorithm. Example of the Ising model.
  Monte Carlo case study: microstructural modelling of grain growth in metals. The application of statistical mechanical and network models to microstructural evolution with comparisons to experimental data and analytical theory.
  Introduction to Molecular Dynamics method. Solving Newton's equations of motion for a thermally isolated system. Verlet method. Velocity rescaling and the use of constant temperature simulations.
  Molecular Dynamics case study: fast ion conduction in fluorite.
  Use of static defect energy calculations and the molecular dynamics method to study fast ion conduction in fluorite crystal structures.

This course describes the behaviour of materials (particularly metals) in contact with ionic solutions (primarily, but not exclusively, water). Initially we will concern ourselves with aqueous corrosion, which is often the factor limiting the useful lifetime of metallic components. The process is extremely costly  apart from replacement costs of components, equipment and machinery, corrosion causes failure, sometimes catastrophic, resulting in injury and loss of life.
The second half of the course will focus on electrochemical devices. In general, electrochemistry is the study of the relationship between electricity and chemical reactions, and beyond corrosion it can be applied in converting chemical free energy associated with a reaction into electrical energy (e.g. batteries (during discharge) and fuel cells) or conversely, when electricity is used to decompose stable chemical systems (e.g. battery charging, extraction of aluminium, electroplating).
This lecture course will cover:
  Kinetics of Reactions in Aqueous Environments: The Metal/Electrolyte Interface; The Tafel Equation; The Tafel Plot; Observations on the Tafel Relationship; The Exchange Current Density
  Corrosion and Protection: The Mechanism of Aqueous Corrosion; Tafel Control; Diffusion Control; Anodic Protection; Cathodic Protection; Other Methods of Protection
  Batteries: Primary Batteries; Secondary Batteries; Liion Batteries
  Fuel Cells: Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell; Electrochemical Reactions; Ceramic Solid Electrolytes; Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
  Electrochemical Sensors: Oxygen Sensor

This module is designed to cover the basic concepts behind the electronic and optical properties of materials, from the classical description used for metals and insulators, to the quantum mechanical approach used for semiconductors. Examples of materials and applications will complement the theoretical framework.

This course builds on IB course F ("Mechanics of Materials and Structures"), which provided an introduction to tensor manipulation, mainly in the context of stresses and strains (both of which are second rank tensors). The present course is a short one (3 lectures), so the coverage of tensors is not extended very far beyond that of the IB course. However, tensors are quite widely used in Materials Science, particularly for anisotropic materials, and there are certain Part II courses (notably C12 and C16) for which tensor usage is required that goes slightly beyond that of the IB coverage.
The first lecture provides a general extension of tensor usage, particularly relating to matrix notation, while the second and third cover some experimental techniques for measurement of strain and the mechanics of thin films. A Revision Examples Class (relating to the coverage of the IB course) is held immediately before start of the current course.
This lecture course will cover:
  Lecture 1 – Use of Tensors. Einstein summation convention. Types of tensor and representation of elastic interactions between them. Stress, strain, stiffness & compliance tensors. Matrix notation for matter tensors. Effect of material symmetry on the number of independent elastic constants.
  Lecture 2 – Strain Gauges and Photoelasticity. Theory of strain gauges. Analysis of strain gauge data. Photoelastic analysis using polarised light. Photoelastic fringe patterns. The "frozen stress" technique.
  Lecture 3  Other Strain Measurement Techniques and Mechanics of Thin Films. Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Moiré interferometry. Xray diffraction. Diffraction of neutrons and synchrotron Xrays. The stress state in thin surface films. The stress state in multilayers.

Magnetism has been known and applied since ancient times, and it lies at the heart of modern technology, enabling the generation, control and transmission of electricity, data storage in computing, and countless other applications.
A detailed understanding of magnetism and its connection with electricity was a major achievement of 19th century physics; but the properties of lodestone, a magnetic material known since antiquity, were not understood until 1948, and predicting the magnetic properties of materials remains challenging today.
The development of practical magnetic materials is a notable success of modern materials science, achieving a 50 times increase in the performance of hard magnetic materials from the steels known in 1900 to the rare earth magnets now ubiquitous in compact devices. After briefly covering the nature and origins of magnetic behaviour, this short course will investigate how these properties can be controlled through material design and processing to meet the requirements of applications.
This lecture course will cover:
  A brief recap of electromagnetism and the atomic origins of magnetism
  The magnetic behaviour of materials: diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, superparamagnetism
  Properties and characteristics of ferromagnetic materials: hysteresis, domains, anisotropy, magnetostriction
  Designing with magnetic materials: demagnetising effect, load lines and energy product
  The properties and processing of practical magnetic materials: hard ferromagnetic materials (e.g. alnico, hard ferrites and NdFeB) and soft ferromagnetic materials (e.g. silicon steels, soft ferrites and NiFe)
  Selected applications of magnetic materials: motors, transformers, hard disk drives

The aim of this course on crystallography is to take students from an elementary understanding of crystals, to a stage where they become confident about single and polycrystals, the crystallography of phase transformations, characterisation methods, and structureproperty relationships.
This kind of knowledge is essential in all topics in science where the relationship between structure and properties is used to design and engineer advanced materials.
This lecture course will cover:
  Introduction and point groups
  Stereographic projections
  Stereograms for low symmetry systems
  Space groups
  The reciprocal lattice and diffraction
  Deformation and texture
  Interfaces, orientation relationships
  Crystallography of martensitic transformations

Solidification processing is of considerable industrial importance. It is extensively used for metals, and also for polymers and semiconductors. In most cases, the rate at which solidification occurs is controlled by the heat flow. However, there are also important solute redistribution phenomena, particularly in metallic alloys and semiconductors, and there is often a complex interplay between heat flow, microstructure (including dendrite structure) and defect production (such as porosity and hot cracking). An understanding of the science of solidification is therefore essential for optimisation of these processes. A brief overview is given at the end of the course of a selection of important solidification processes.
This lecture course will cover:
  Lecture 1  Solidification Growth Kinetics. Free energy changes. Entropy of fusion and facetting. Continuous and lateral growth modes. Growth velocities and undercoolings for continuous growth.
  Lecture 2  Interface Stability & Dendrite Formation. Solute redistribution and constitutional undercooling. Dendritic and grain structures. Easy growth directions. Primary spacings. Marginal stability and fastestgrowing wavelengths.
  Lecture 3  The Mushy Zone. Dendrite coarsening in the mushy zone. Mushy zone characteristics. Backdiffusion in the solid. Effect of heat flow on the mushy zone.
  Lecture 4  Eutectic Growth. Usage of eutectics. A model for coupled eutectic growth. Extremum growth. Eutectic microstructures. Anomalous eutectics.
  Lecture 5  Control of Cast Structure. Heat flow and interfacial heat transfer. Heat flow regimes. Mushy zone characteristics. Defect formation. Porosity. Hot cracking.
  Lecture 6 – Selected Solidification Processes. Continuous casting of steel. Semicontinuous casting of aluminium. Czochralski growth of single crystals. Zone melting and the floating zone process.

The aim of this course is revision of mathematics. The course booklet contains a comprehensive handout for each Class, which you will be expected to study in advance of each session. It is assumed that you have a working knowledge of trigonometry, and of the basic principles and practice of differentiation and integration. The course draws heavily on examples taken from materials science where the ability to use mathematics as a tool can be usefully illustrated.
The course will cover:
Examples Class 1
  Direction cosines
  Matrix algebra
  Principal axes, eigenvalues and eigenvectors
  Matrix transformations
  Delta functions
  Fourier series, Fourier transforms and convolution
Examples Class 2
  Series expansions and summations
  Statistics and error handling
  Differentiation of exponentials
  Lagrange multipliers
Examples Class 3
  Second order linear differential equations
  Solutions of firstorder differential equations
  Applications of differential equations to diffusion and solidification

The course deals with the design and use of metallic alloys with a focus on the development and control of microstructure, the relationships between microstructure and properties, and applications. The major metallic alloy systems are covered. In addition, anisotropy is addressed since the structures, and hence properties, of many materials (natural and manmade) are not uniform and anisotropic behaviour is seen (and often optimised) when they are used in service. The lectures conclude with an overview of different types of nondestructive testing with an emphasis on those that are most relevant industrially.
This lecture course will cover:
  introduction and production of light alloys (Al, Ti, Mg)
  aluminium alloys
  titanium alloys, including superplasticity
  magnesium alloys
  anisotropy in both single crystal and polycrystalline material
  steels with a review of the basis types and their properties
  copper alloys, overview
  nickel alloys, overview and superalloys
  nondestructive testing

The course covers the physical properties of polymers, including simple models for predicting behaviour and their origin in terms of molecular structure. The relationship between chemical structure, chain conformation, crystal structure and macroscopic properties is emphasised.
We first review the concept of polymer conformation, and how this can be described using the basic random walk model, before developing more sophisticated models that take into account correlations in segmental orientation. We will then focus on mechanical analogies (spring/dashpot models and linear elastic solid) for viscoelastic behaviour of glassy polymers. The crystallisation process of some polymers is then reviewed, before concluding with methods for enhancing strength and stiffness of polymer fibres by increasing orientation and alignment of their constituent molecules.
This lecture course will cover:
  Molecular Tour of Common Polymer Types
  Basic Concepts in Polymer Physics: The random walk model revisited, Kuhn chain, characteristic ratio, radius of gyration.
  Noncrystalline Polymers: (a) Physical States of Polymers. Glass, melt, rubber and viscoelastic states, revision of glass transition.
  Noncrystalline Polymers: (b) Mechanical Models for Polymers. Spring and dashpot mechanical analogue, Maxwell and Voigt elements, relaxation times and constitutive equations. Standard linear solid model, and relaxation time spectra.
  Noncrystalline Polymers: (c) Polymer Physics of Deformation. Modulus of polymer glasses, properties in the region of Tg, timetemperature superposition, WLF equation and free volume justification. Revision of simple rubber elasticity. Viscosity, reptation, equations for characteristic time and viscosity, comparison with experiment, and entanglement molecular weight.
  Crystallisation and Crystal Structure of Polymers: Factors preventing crystallisation, revision of tacticity and copolymers. Crystallisation mechanism, chainfolded morphology, thermodynamics, kinetic influence on crystal shape, entanglements and secondary crystallisation. Bulk kinetics and Avrami equation. Relationship between chemical structure, chain conformation and crystal structure for vinyl polymers, conformational diagrams and energy maps, effect of larger side groups and syndiotactic molecules. Polymer chain packing regimes.
  Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers: Yielding and plastic flow, drawing, and yield criteria (Tresca, von Mises). Fracture of glassy polymers, crazing. Rubber toughening of polymers. Reinforcement of rubbers.
  High Performance Fibres: Theoretical values of strength and stiffness, textile fibres, super drawing, aligned solutions, gel drawing. Liquid crystalline polymers: thermotropic routes, Tm control through molecular design, lyotropic routes, processing, structure and properties of Kevlar and related polymer fibres. Carbon fibres and carbon nanotube fibres

Thermal Analysis describes a set of techniques which are widely used in both academic research and industry. These techniques are generally straightforward to use and are able to characterise a wide range of materials and materials properties.
This course is an introduction to a number of these techniques, describing how they are performed and how to interpret the data they produce. In addition practical issues of temperature control and measurement are discussed in some detail.
This lecture course will cover:
  Survey of properties commonly measured as a function of temperature
  Use of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
  ThermoGravimetric Analysis (TGA)
  Other forms of calorimetry
  Thermal Analysis case studies
  Equipment and experimental design

In this course, attention will be focused on a description and analysis of yield criteria for the plastic flow of materials, together with simplified analyses of plastic deformation in the context of materials deformation, particularly with regards to metal forming processes such as extrusion, forging and wire drawing.
The principles established in this course will help students to obtain an appreciation of solid mechanics sufficient to enable them to use sophisticated finite element modelling computer programs to analyse 'real world' metal processing situations more complex than those considered in this course. In particular the principles established in this course will help students to develop the key skills required to assess intuitively whether or not predictions from such programs are physically reasonable.
This lecture course will cover:
  Plastic flow and its microscopic physical and macroscopic engineering descriptions.
  A consideration of the ways in which crystalline metallic materials are able to accommodate general changes in strain through glide of dislocations and through twinning.
  Yield criteria in metals, polymeric materials and geological materials
  Analyses of plane stress plastic deformation and plane strain plastic deformation situations
  Estimates of forces and pressures required to enable simple deformation processing operations to take place using analytical (slipline field) solutions and upper bound analyses.

Ceramics are the group of materials most widely used by man. They include the cheapest materials, such as brick, concrete and glass, and the most expensive, such as diamond. Unlike metals, they have an extraordinary range and combination of properties that are widely used in a huge range of different devices and, unlike polymers, can be used at temperatures well above 400°C. Many operate in extreme conditions of temperature, stress and electrical fields. Even in electronic applications, it is the structural behaviour that limits the performance and lifetime.
This course describes how ceramics are made, how properties are influenced by processing and the limits to the improvements that are more easily possible. The course then explores ways for making more substantial improvements.
This lecture course will cover:
  Making ceramics: from melts and powders. Problems with casting. Using powders. Powder compaction. Sintering of powders: driving forces. Mechanisms. Densification: stages, rates. Liquidphase sintering. Use of applied pressure.
  Making ceramics: chemical bonding. Chemical routes to making ceramics. Liquid and gaseous precursors. Problems with precursors. Uses as bonding agents. Cements. Reactions. Glassceramics, e.g. Li_{2}OSiO_{2}.
  Why is brittleness such a pest? The implications for components: The origin of flaws and their removal: Porosity and interparticle friction, e.g. cement. Large grains and their effect on strength, e.g. Al_{2}O_{3}, Al_{2}TiO_{5}. Agglomeration, e.g. Al_{2}O_{3}, SiC. Removal of agglomerates. Proof testing. The limits of improvements.
  Improving reliability by toughening. Rcurve behaviour and its effect on the Weibull modulus. Toughening and microstructure. Crack deflection. Making tough structures: gas pressure sintered Si_{3}N_{4}, liquid phase sintered SiC.
  Toughening by phase transformations. Increasing the resistance to cracking by transformation toughening, e.g. ZrO_{2}. Zirconia and its crystal structures. Spontaneous transformation. Retention of metastable structures. Effect of the applied stress. Size of the transformation zone around a crack. Estimation of the extent of toughening.
  Making structures that transform. Zirconia microstructures for high toughness and their fabrication. Partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ). Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP). Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). Effect of microstructure on cracking.
  Increasing the resistance to temperature changes. Thermal shock. The differences between mechanical and thermal loading. The onset of cracking. Unstable cracking and failure. Stable cracking. Estimating the degree of crack growth. Making thermally shock resistant microstructures and materials. Al_{2}O_{3} and MgO refractories.
  Wear. Hard materials: cutting, forming and electronics. Contact damage. The mechanisms of wear in brittle materials.

In this course, we will look at the characteristics of Xray and neutron radiation, the ways in which they can be produced and how they interact with crystalline materials. We shall then explore the theory of diffraction and consider the factors that influence the position, intensity and shape of the observed diffraction peaks. We will also discuss the principles of extracting quantitative information, including phase fractions, from a diffraction pattern.
The course will then look at how diffraction can be used to assess other properties of materials, such as crystallographic texture, the evolution of strain in different crystal families and how it can be used to make nondestructive measurements of residual stresses in engineering components.
This lecture course will cover:
  Radiation fundamentals: properties and production of Xray and neutron radiation; atomic interactions  scattering, absorption, fluorescence, scattering factors
  Diffraction theory: factors affecting diffraction peaks  position, intensity, shape; instrumental corrections  polarisation, Lorentz factor, axial divergence; principles of quantitative analysis
  Diffraction from engineering materials: crystallographic texture – influence and measurement; lattice strain and the evolution of residual strain; measuring residual stresses

This course examines the use of Fracture Mechanics in the prediction of mechanical failure. We explore the range of macroscopic static failure modes and extend these principles to fatigue failure.
The first part of the course (Fracture) focusses on fast fracture in brittle and ductile materials, principally metals. This includes the characteristics of fracture surfaces, intergranular and intragranular failure, cleavage and microductility. The quantitative application of Elastic Fracture Mechanics is explained, together with the modifications necessary to include ductile cleavage behaviour.
In the second part of the course (Fatigue) we describe the range of fatigue failure including high and low cycle fatigue and thermomechanical fatigue. The effects of variables in testing regimes and the environment and microstructure are included. The various strategies used to predict the service lives of components are critically discussed. The potential origins of crack formation are considered and the quantitative application of the Paris law and fracture mechanics to predict the growth of fatigue cracks is described.
This lecture course will cover:
Fracture:
  Revision of concept of energy release rate, G, and fracture energy, R. Obreimoff's experiment. Brittle and ductile failure. Timeline for developments.
  Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, (LEFM). We look at the three loading modes and hence the state of stress ahead of the crack tip. This leads to the definition of the stress concentration factor, stress intensity factor and the material parameter the critical stress intensity factor.
  Superposition principle. Mixed mode loading and the prediction of crack growth direction.
  Plasticity at the crack tip and the principles behind the approximate derivation of plastic zone shape and size. Limits on the applicability of LEFM. The effect of constraint, definition of plane stress and plane strain and the effect of component thickness.
  Concept of G  R curves: measuring G and K.
  ElasticPlastic Fracture Mechanics; (EPFM). The definition of alternative failure prediction parameters, Crack Tip Opening Displacement, and the J integral. Measurement of parameters and examples of use.
  Reading fracture surfaces: The effect of microstructure on fracture mechanism and path, ductile and cleavage failure, factors improving toughness.
Fatigue:
  Definition of terms used to describe fatigue cycles, High Cycle Fatigue, Low Cycle Fatigue, mean stress R ratio, strain and load control.
  Total life and damage tolerant approaches to life prediction: Paris law and SN curves.
  Adapting test data to real conditions: Goodman's rule and Miner's rule. Micromechanisms of fatigue damage, fatigue limits and initiation and propagation control, leading to a consideration of factors enhancing fatigue resistance.
  Factors affecting crack growth rates: Creep, oxidation and corrosion. Dissipation energy criterion for crack growth.

This course covers various aspects of the performance and usage of composite materials. It is primarily oriented towards "conventional" composites, which comprise long fibres (usually of glass or carbon) in a polymeric matrix. However, there is some coverage of other types of reinforcement and also of composites based on metals or ceramics. The treatment includes both elastic and plastic deformation, plus fracture characteristics, and indications are given as to how composites can often offer highly attractive combinations of lightness, stiffness, strength and toughness, and hence why their usage continues to expand. Certain thermal characteristics are also covered. Towards the end of the course, information is provided about the mechanics of (thick and thin) surface coatings, which can be treated as a special type of composite system.
This lecture course will cover:
  Lecture 1  Overview of Types of Composite System. Overview of composites usage. Types of reinforcement and matrix. Carbon and glass fibres. PMCs, MMCs and CMCs. Aligned fibre composites, woven rovings, chopped strand mat, laminae and laminates.
  Lecture 2  Elastic Properties of Long Fibre Composites. Use of the Slab Model. HalpinTsai expressions. Poisson ratios. Elastic loading of a lamina. Matrix notation. Kirchoff assumptions. Axial and transverse loading. Effect of material symmetry on the number of independent elastic constants.
  Lecture 3  Offaxis Elastic Properties of Laminae & Laminates. Loading at an arbitrary angle to the fibre axis. Derivation of transformed stressstrain relationship. Effect of loading angle on stiffness and Poisson ratio. Tensileshear interaction behaviour. Obtaining the elastic constants of a laminate.
  Lecture 4 – Classification of Laminates. Stiffness of laminates. Tensileshear interactions and balanced laminates. Inplane stresses within a loaded laminate. Coupling stresses and symmetric laminates.
  Lecture 5  Short Fibre & Particulate Composites – Stress Distributions. The Shear Lag Model for stress transfer. Interfacial shear stresses. The stress transfer aspect ratio. Stress distributions with low reinforcement aspect ratios. Numerical model predictions. Hydrostatic stresses and cavitation.
  Lecture 6  Short Fibre & Particulate Composites – Stiffness & Inelastic Behaviour. Load partitioning and stiffness prediction for the Shear Lag model. Fibre aspect ratios needed to approach the long fibre (equal strain) stiffness. Inelastic interfacial phenomena. Interfacial sliding and matrix yielding. Critical aspect ratio for fibre fracture.
  Lecture 7  The FibreMatrix Interface. Interfacial bonding mechanisms. Measurement of bond strength. Pullout & pushout testing. Control of bond strength. Silane coupling agents. Interfacial reactions and their control during processing.
  Lecture 8  Fracture Strength of Composites. Axial tensile strength of long fibre composites. Transverse and shear strength. Mixed mode failure and the TsaiHill criterion. Failure of laminates. Internal stresses in laminates. Failure sequences. Testing of tubes in combined tension and torsion.
  Lecture 9  Fracture Toughness of Composites. Energies absorbed by crack deflection and by fibre pullout. Crack deflection. Toughness of different types of composite. Constraints on matrix plasticity in MMCs. Metal fibre reinforced ceramics.
  Lecture 10  Compressive Loading of Fibre Composites. Modes of failure in compression. Kink band formation. The Argon equation. Prediction of compressive strength and the effect of fibre waviness. Failure in highly aligned systems. Possibility of fibre crushing failure.
  Lecture 11  Thermal Expansion of Composites and Thermal Residual Stresses. Thermal expansivity of long fibre composites. Transverse expansivities. Short fibre and particulate systems. Differential thermal contraction stresses. Thermal cycling. Thermal residual stresses.
  Lecture 12  Surface Coatings as Composite Systems. Misfit strains in substratecoating systems. Force and moment balances. Relationship between residual stress distribution and system curvature. Curvature measurement to obtain stresses in coatings. Limitations of Stoney equation. Sources of misfit strain. Driving forces for interfacial debonding.

In this course, concepts concerning the rate of heat transfer and the mode by which such a transfer takes place will be discussed. Both analytical and empirical equations and models governing heat transfer will be evaluated and applied to selected case studies.
Mass transfer will be introduced in concept as an analogue to the heat transfer equations and models, and applied to practical problem solving.
This lecture course will cover:
Heat Transfer
  Basic concepts of heat transfer by conduction, convection and thermal radiation and their relevance to metallurgical processes
  Heat conduction equation; convection and heat transfer calculations; thermal resistance; heat transfer coefficient; selected dimensionless groups; radiation from black and grey surfaces
  Case studies: Combined modes of heat transfer in (a) induction heating and (b) plasma spraying
Mass Transfer
  Fluid flow and viscosity; mass transfer in metallurgical processes; mass transfer coefficient and interphase mass transfer
  Case studies: Applications of mass transfer calculations to (a) gas dissolution in molten metals and (b) metal refining reactions

In this course, we will begin by considering the various categories of medical device and how their function influences the testing that is relevant to their application. We then move on to considering the biological tissues that we might wish to repair and replace, and some of the biological responses that materials might illicit when implanted.
We then focus on one particular medical application: joint replacement. First, we consider the requirements in terms of the natural system that we aim to replace and then discuss in detail the range of materials and designs that are currently available  and in particular, their limitations. Finally we consider some new materials and applications that are currently under development, which may be used to treat patients in the future.
This lecture course will cover:
  The requirements in the design of medical materials
  The structure and properties of: collagen, tendon, ligament and skin and bone
  The biological response to material (and the response of materials to the environment in the human body)
  Joint replacement: the structure of synovial joints, and the design of implants for hip and knee replacement, focusing on the materials used in stem components, the articulating surfaces and the options for the fixation of the implants in bone.
  New materials that are currently under development including synthetic polymers and composites and collagenand ceramicbased scaffolds.

The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to electron microscopy imaging and analytical techniques used in Materials Science.
We will describe electron optics and detectors used in scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and explain how different signals are formed and collected to characterise the microstructure of materials. We will focus on the concepts of signal and contrast, and explain how images and analytical signals can be interpreted quantitatively.
Through examples, will explore how SEM and TEM techniques are applied to study specific materials problems.
This lecture course will cover:
Scanning electron microscopy
  Electron optics and detectors in the SEM
  Beam specimen interactions
  Image formation and contrast mechanisms in the SEM
  Xray microanalysis
Transmission electron microscopy
  Electron optics and detectors in the TEM
  Image formation and main contrast mechanisms in TEM

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the key techniques of nanoscience and nanotechnology, providing relatively straightforward access to nanoscale surface structure for a vast range of materials: both conductors and insulators, soft and hard materials, even samples in a fluid environment. In this course, we will explore the physical principles which underlie this powerful technique and its practical implementation. Attention will be given to interpreting data, avoiding artefacts and understanding sources of error. Moreover, AFM also provides the basis for a wealth of other scanning probe microscopy techniques which allow the measurement of a wide range of materials properties, such as conductivity and stiffness, to be performed at the nanoscale. The course will address these various imaging modes and consider the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques.
The lecture course is designed to be supported by the Part II Practical on AFM, and also provides the underpinning knowledge required for the Part II Techniques Project on AFM.
This lecture course will cover:
  Principles and practicalities of topographic imaging in AFM: Tapping mode and contact mode, key components of the AFM, understanding the feedback circuit, image optimisation principles, resolution.
  Artefacts in AFM imaging: tiprelated artefacts, feedbackrelated artefacts, image processing.
  Electrical and magnetic characterisation using AFM:t apping mode techniques including magnetic force microscopy and kelvin probe force microscopy, contact mode techniques including scanning capacitance microscopy and techniques involving tipsample current flow, spectroscopic data.
  Mechanical property characterisation using AFM: phase imaging, friction force microscopy, force distance curves.
  Nanofabrication in AFM.
  AFM imaging of biological samples.